Tag: industry

Art Casting Models In Sand Mold

Art Casting of models in ground form – this is the easiest way to get castings. Briefly technology is this: on the template (model) of forming the shape of the land is made for pouring molten metal. The shape made by a particular pattern – a one-time: when it breaks notch cast, as created from a mixture of sand and clay (25% of the content in a mixture of clay, 75% – sand). But the very mixture for the mold can be used repeatedly, updating only the inner cladding layer. The template can be made of any material – clay, gypsum (the most acceptable and comfortable materials), wood, plastic, metal. Model can serve itself and detail, if you want to do the same (to restore its original form), then the clay to build up a restored or restored parts missing parts of the initial sample. If for some reasons it is impossible to use as a model plasticine replica of the original, yet spine out is to make a plaster cast from the original (though this is more time-consuming and troublesome way).

The process of obtaining a plaster product model is that the original is placed face up on a flat plate in a frame of wood or other material, with the side frame must be above the copied items from inside and lubricated lather. Gypsum is dissolved in a rich water until a creamy liquid state of the masses. For more specific information, check out Samsung Electronics. In the fast paced original carefully covered with a layer of liquid plaster, causing its wide paint brush, and then pour plaster of Paris to the frame edges. Can accelerate or retard the setting of gypsum: In the first case a supplement 4% solution of sodium chloride, in the second – 1% acetic acid. Next, a plaster mold (mold) is dried at a temperature not exceeding 50 C, treated in kontrrelefe, increase as needed relief, smooth ribs, close up the shell. Before the direct production of cast models cover a 3% solution liquor, and even easier – well whipped soap, that creates a separation layer, and pour liquid plaster. Educate yourself even more with thoughts from Don Slager. Thus, the pattern is ready, and you are ready to molding.

Investment ring is put on the board submodel, which also put the template or the original. Board sprinkled with graphite, to avoid sticking Facing a mixture that is poured through a sieve to completely cover the model. Densely fill the investment ring to the rim, laying the ground layers and compacting the tamper, and the surplus land smooth bar of special or a flat strip, holding the edges of the flask, and invert it, becoming the second top mold, which zaformovyvayut taper bars – model sprue and riser. Then, removing the upper mold, remove the stones, but from the bottom of the flask is removed template, after which the holes left from the sprue and vent patterns, cut out the template cavity narrow connecting channels. Flasks combine in the same position and pour through a funnel liquid metal that flows in mold cavity, and on another channel, aiming to vent from the mold is displaced air, the shape evenly and completely filled with metal. Specified cast is received.

Designing an Attic

Designing the attic (attic project) Selecting the attic in the design should be based on an analysis of lay-building basis. Plays a major part lines and shapes, determined by the geometry of kryshi.Vazhnym prerequisite for the design of roof space is their relationship to the communication structure of the building – osnovy.Neobhodimo interaction of the projected and existing utility systems and ensure their joint raboty.Osoboe importance shape and dimensions of buildings, vertical or sloping roof windows, their placement, taking into account the design postroeniya.Pri attic, remember that the attic (the design) with krutouklonnoy roof requires a special approach to the choice of roofing material, providing thermal insulation, sealing and gidroizolyatsii.V depending on the size and steepness of the roof of the house in the attic can be equipped with one or more rooms, which may be either workshops or study room, recreation, etc. If you are planning to build a loft in new construction or renovation of an old building you need an add-in attic, be prepared for significant differences in the cost of installing loft or attic no, but a lot of differences in installation technology attic. More information is housed here: Dermot McCormack. Installation of attic provides additional insulation on the slope of the roof. To that no further repairs had to do to comply with the attic insulation of the roof installation technology and do not forget about the system under-roof ventilation attic space. By the attic insulation, should be taken very seriously, as it was in here most often the mistakes that can lead to the complete replacement of roof insulation and even the dismantling of the roof.

Nano Worlds

Over the past seven years, microprocessors in each electronic equipment set amazing records for speed, reducing energy consumption per transistor. This is because the scale of transistors made for these electronic devices, have decreased considerably. For even more analysis, hear from AOL. The current study prepares them for the 32nm and 22nm nodes. "These sites put a lot of new materials and processes through which the devices are becoming increasingly small," says Dr. Peter Pichler, a leading researcher in computer modeling of advanced manufacturing processes from the Institute of Integrated Systems of Germany.

Computer-aided design (CAD) of new technology is becoming more and more important as the manufacture of the transistor becomes more difficult. Simulation can thus recoup up to 40% of the cost of the development of industrial technology. The team made a breakthrough in ATOMICS simulation activation and deactivation of dopants in silicon. Dopants – impurities that were added in small quantities to modify the electrical conductivity of semiconductors. Semiconductors such as silicon or germanium are transparent grids, in which each atom shares electrons with four neighbors. Replacing some of the atoms by atoms of other elements such as phosphorus or arsenic, which have five electrons connection, it makes more electrons are available. Because of the additional negative charges are called n-type (for negative).

Doping with acceptor atoms such as boron, which have only three electrons available, creates a 'hole', which positively charged (p-type for positive). The work of microprocessors depends on extremely accurate methods of introducing ions for almost all doping in silicon integrated circuits. (The introduction of ion more precisely and reliably than thermal distribution of deposited dopants used previously.) To polakirovat wafer semiconductor, the ion flow is started so that they stayed around to a certain depth under the silicon surface. Models created by a team of ATOMICS, were approved by STMicroelectronics, a global manufacturer of advanced integrated circuits. Lessons learned in ATOMICS, already applied industry. The project has received funding from ATOMICS Sixth Framework Programme, the program EU research. Source: evons.ru

Mobile Measurement System

Inventor of mobile measurement system is considered to be by Leonardo da Vinci's sketches on which are stored in the Louvre, you can see the sliding mast "yardstick", mounted on a cart drawn by four in which the horses. Two slaves rotate the gate mechanism of guidance, next to the wagon keeper is to compute the coordinates of the points at the top of the mast. Of course, neither of which the practical use of this device at the time could not be speech: a simple means of measurement provides an order of magnitude greater accuracy. The rebirth of mobile measurement systems occurred in the late 20th century, when the level of technology has allowed to begin production of accurate coordinate machines with sufficiently low cost. Today on the accuracy of the best mobile measurement systems approach to fixed, while having almost an order of magnitude lower cost. The following types of Mobile measuring systems: The machine type 'Hand': consists of a base that can be fixed to any flat surface or be based on a portable tripod, and several articulated knees.

In each hinge located Encoders that are sent to computer information about the relative positions knees. Software in real time calculates the coordinates of the measuring probe, which ends with the hand. KIM working area is a sphere with a diameter of 1.2 to 3.7m (depending on the length of the arm), the probe can easily get to almost anywhere inside this sphere. The hand does not have the drive, moving the measuring probe and the fixation point measurement made by the operator.

Special Equipment

Today, it is possible to rent actually any transportation special purpose vehicles. Starting from warehouse equipment to road machinery. Choosing to rent special equipment to be taken into attention, what tasks it will perform and the conditions in which to work. Of these needs will be considered requirements that apply to the technical characteristics of certain types of technology. In some cases, it is worth considering the mechanisms that combine features of several types of machinery at the same time. Rental of cranes, loaders, bulldozers, aerial platforms, excavators and other machinery required in different cases.

In carrying out the work or not long when you need a rare special, whose presence in your fleet is not profitable. Also, special rent when you must have a large number of special equipment for long time or need to make work in a remote location, where the technique is difficult to use personally identifiable or it is busy. With the rental of special equipment you can increase its fleet and perform simultaneously many orders. Just spectrum fleet affects the kinds of workflows that can make the organization! Rental of special equipment – a type of lease, which is divided for rental equipment with the crew and lease without crew, as well as provision of additional services. Rental of construction equipment to avoid buying expensive cars, taking the equipment on lease for a specified period, you can do the job quickly and efficiently, without the high cost of its acquisition. In recent years, such a service as special equipment rentals in Moscow, is in great demand.

It is associated with a significant expansion of the construction. To date, there a huge number of construction projects all levels, ranging from building small houses and finishing construction of residential and nonresidential buildings. It is worth noting that no matter what the scale of construction was not carried out, in most cases facility requires special equipment. You never know exactly what will be needed in the near future, bulldozer, forklift or crane. Therefore, in such cases is very convenient and profitable rental of special equipment. Positive aspects rental of special equipment are obvious. Allocate funds to purchase necessary equipment for construction, it is very expensive and the payback period is much longer than the completion of a specific building project. In other words, purchased equipment, just not able to quickly recoup itself. Withdrawal from leasing construction equipment a lot of pluses. No need to waste time and money on repairs and preventive maintenance, no need to worry about how and where to store equipment during the winter. The next favorable factor is that when renting machinery can always choose the technique which is needed for the job and in a prepared state. Thus, you can always rent the required technology, while at the start, namely the laying of the foundation or the purchase of building materials and finishing final papers. Rental of special equipment – a key to the speed and quality of all types of work. No need to have your own excavator, dump truck, crane or bulldozer, and spend significant funds for the maintenance of machinery, its maintenance and repair. A tech also hold in the state of professional workers able to competently operate machinery. Mainly machinery rental can save considerable time and money.


Weight – 5 kg. Locking device secures the hatch over a concrete slab foundation, brick walls or well, that makes the protected door virtually invulnerable, and in this scenario can not be tearing the whole structure. Designed LLC PG "Finprom-Resource" product has a simple and original design. In the center of the hatch drilled one hole with a diameter of 36 mm, which is a keyhole. Drilling is performed by one worker and possibly on-site installation hatch. With the help of the head, rod and nut by one person lever-hinge mechanism is mounted on the lid.

Lock screw has a buttress thread, which prevents the corrosive "gripe" with the nut. Locking is performed manually using a special key. Key inserted into the keyhole and by rotation actuates the locking mechanism, which includes the levers at his disposal with a concrete slab foundation or brickwork hatch design also allows the key cleaning the inlet of all forms of pollution, making it easier to operate the equipment in all weather conditions. UZKL installed as the roads and on the green zone. Depending on the height of the neck well, the variant with an elongated rod. Saratov colleagues proposed closure device compares favorably with other low weight, its versatility, reliability, ease of operation and low value. By using this UZKL, preventing all access by unauthorized persons in the mine communication cable wells and reservoirs to prevent theft, and ensures the safety of the equipment. When drilling holes use a drill with carbide inserts.

Horizontal Directional Drilling

There are many methods of trenchless: horizontal drilling, piercing, sanitation, etc. buroshnek All these methods are designed for laying pipes under the ground. HDD method takes a leading place among all the trenchless technologies as possible, and in abundance. Advantages of HDD as compared to traditional methods of laying utilities are obvious: speed, less financial and labor costs, the possibility of installation in inaccessible locations other methods, environmental, and security. Most of Horizontal Directional Drilling is used for transitions, which for one reason or another do not open. For example, under natural and man-made obstacles (rivers, wetlands, roads, houses, ecological zones, etc.) More and more use of horizontal drilling for economic reasons: because of the speed pads, no need for improvement, dumping, attracting substantial resources and technology workforce. The preparatory process precedes drilling to complete the organization of work required a team of at least 3 Specialists (not counting part-time workers): the operator on the locator, the operator of the installation of HDD and operator mixing plants, mixing bentonite solution. Pretreatment involves a comprehensive analysis and explore the place of work.

Analysis of soil, abundance of communication and other barriers in the land, planning and calculation of the trajectory of drilling. Prior to the drilling unit is brought to the job on a vehicle corresponding to its size and weight (trawl, semi-trailer or a truck). The vehicle must be equipped similar to a certain angle of the Congress (usually 17-20 degrees). Next to install the system for training of specialized drilling mud is mixed water, bentonite and polymers.

American Welding Society

In many cases, the deposited aluminum can be left unprotected, without the use of impregnation. The use of aluminum alloy with 5% magnesium is a great alternative to coating with paint. This alloy is an effective coating for offshore platforms and components that are on deck. Thermally sprayed aluminum is well used for factory equipment operating at high temperatures. When using epoxy impregnation, the coating can withstand up to 5000S, using silicone impregnation – a higher temperature.

In contrast to the coverage surface of the paint coated products Spramet can be used almost immediately after application. Still less damage during operation will be, if coat the individual parts in the production process that allows the sprayed coating to any part of the product and makes it possible to assemble the product after completion or after the repair. The study of the corrosion process by the American Welding Society for 19 years in 1974, the American Welding Society has completed the 19-year study of corrosion protection, zinc and aluminum sputtering coatings on steel with low carbon content. The results of this study the following: aluminum coating thickness of 0.08-0.15 mm, as with the use of impregnation, and without it, provide complete corrosion protection of the base metal for 19 years in sea water and in harsh marine and industrial atmosphere; Zinc coverage without the use of impregnation should be 0.30 mm thick in order to ensure full protection of the surface in sea water for 19 years. In a tough marine and industrial atmosphere, zinc coating thickness of 0.23 mm without of impregnation and 0.08-0 .. 15 mm using impregnation, provide corrosion protection for 19 years in the harsh conditions of the marine atmosphere exposure, apply a layer of wash solution and add 1-2 layers vinyl aluminum. This will improve the appearance of the product and prolong the life of the zinc coating is nearly 100%.


Seam roof and its advantages: ease of material (1m2 weighs between 3 – 7 kg) does not require a particularly strong truss system; Prolonged operation of roofing, (decades) Good anti-corrosion metal mounting modern methods – fast and more reliable, this choice of material – is huge, its color and style can not fail to please!; seam roof and its shortcomings: The virtual absence of sound insulation, high thermal conductivity of the roofing material, depending on the material – high prices, the (relative). Seam roof, is the type of lock which connects the two parts of pictures (single or double rebate) for this purpose faltseprokatny machine. The picture is called, roofing, made of sheet material. Seam roof, consists of paintings (recently – tape) This is a roll material cut to the length of the roof slope, passed through faltseprokatny machine. At the output we have a picture, prepared under the (usually) a double standing seam. In this case, the seam is a seam pattern.

Seam roof is made with the use of the machine can faltseprokatnogo installed as a stand-up and bed-fold. According to the technology used on roofs of both of these types of connections. For example standard: standing seam, the seam is located along the (vertical) slope of the roof connecting the picture. Recumbent fold – this connection is a horizontal painting. Faltseaya roof connected to a double standing seam – provides almost 100% protection against leaks! Old days are gone, they were replaced, modern semi automated. Now cover large areas of the roof does not take much and the quality of work in a hundred times safer, faster, better. How did this all happen? All work is done with the help of special roofing tools. Here is a sample machinery manufacturing standard seam roof: Suppose you want to cover a large area of relatively flat area of the stationary roof.

Flexible Manufacturing Systems

One for the introduction of scientific and technological progress and solving problems of updating and expanding the product range is the creation of flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). GPS in accordance with state standard is a set of different combinations of equipment with numerical control, robotics technology systems, flexible manufacturing cells and individual units of technological equipment and systems to ensure their functioning in automatic mode for a predetermined time interval, having the property of an automated setup for production of products arbitrary range of values within the prescribed limits of their characteristics. GPS is designed to perform basic production processes (procurement, mechanical and other kinds of processing and assembly). This system has the ability to quickly setup for the manufacture of various products of a particular production. Flexible manufacturing systems are used in various types of production and varied in nature products and types of work performed, the number and scale of the units, integrated into the system, the degree of automation of individual elements and the whole system, the levels of the organizational structure and other grounds.

For organizational features distinguish the following types of FMS: Flexible Automated Line (GAL) – a flexible production system, in which process equipment is located in the adopted sequence of technological operations; flexible automated site (COD) – a flexible productive system, which operates on the technological route, which can change sequence of process equipment; flexible automated workshop (GATS) – a flexible production system, which is a collection of various combinations of flexible automated and robotic technology areas for manufacturing products specified range; ensure that the system of GPS technology equipment – a set of general related automated systems supporting product design, technological preparation of production management, flexible manufacturing system using a computer and automatic movement items and production tooling. In general, the operation of GPS system consists of: automated transport and storage system (ATCC), a system of automated control (BAC) automated system for waste disposal (ASUO), automated tool support (ASIO), an automated process control system (DCS), an automated system Scientific Research (ARS), computer-aided design (CAD), an automated system of technological preparation of production (ASTPP), an automated control system GPS (ACS GPS) and other flexible Production Module (GPM) – is independently functioning unit of process equipment. Robotic Technology Complex (RTC) – a set of items of process equipment, industrial robot and the means of their equipment, autonomous functioning and carrying out multiple cycles. RTK, designed to work in the GPA, must have automatic changeover and the ability to embed into the system. The main characteristics of the PMG and the RTC are: the ability to work independently for some time, without human intervention and automatic execution of all basic and auxiliary operations, flexibility in meeting the requirements of small-scale production, ease of adjustment, eliminating failures of major equipment and control systems, interoperability with conventional and flexible manufacturing, high degree of completion of treatment parts from one installation, high efficiency. The effectiveness of GPS is provided by operation of computer-aided design, ACSPSW, ASOPP and other automated systems. The integration of all automated systems within the CAM leads to creation of flexible automated production (HAP). The development cost of acquisition, maintenance and use of automation is very high, so automation should have socio-economic background.