Water Treatment The water usually need treatment before use, depending on the source and intended use (with high requirements for drinking water). The water quality of domestic connections and waters suggest that in low-income countries are unreliable for direct human consumption. Water taken directly from surface waters and shallow wells extracted by hand almost always requires treatment. The choices of appropriate technology for water treatment design includes both EU and to the domestic scale of the place of use.The most reliable way to kill microbial pathogens is to heat the water to a boil. Other techniques, ranging from filtration, chemical disinfection and exposure to ultraviolet radiation (including solar UV) have demonstrated in a series of randomized controlled trials, significantly lower levels of diseases transmitted through water in low-income countries. Over the past decade, has undertaken an increasing number of field studies to determine the effect of measures in place to use to reduce water-borne diseases. The ability of the choices on the point of use to reduce disease is a function of both its ability to eliminate microbial pathogens if correctly implemented, such as social factors such as ease of use and cultural appropriateness.
These technologies can generate higher (or lower) health benefits of the results of laboratory-based microbial removal might suggest.The current priority of the supporters of the treatments in the place of use is to reach a large number of low-income users on a sustainable basis. Few measures of place of use have reached a significant scale, although efforts to promote and commercial distribution of these products in the impoverished world has only been developed over a few years. Moreover, treatment of small-scale water, are achieving significant fractions of the population in low income countries, especially in South and Southeast Asia in the form of water treatment kiosks (also known as stations water recharge or packaged water producers). While quality control and certification in these places can be varied, sophisticated technology (such as multi-stage particle filtration, UV irradiation, ozonation or filtration through membrane) is applied with increasing frequency.These microenterprises are able to sell water at extremely low prices, with increasing government regulations. The initial monitoring of the quality of water sold is being encouraged. Some examples of specific treatment processes, applied both domestically and at EU level are: – porous ceramic filtration, using both clay and sand diatome ceas, and formed both by cylinders, pans or discs, with feed systems fall basis of severity or siphons. Silver is often added to provide improved antimicrobial.- Slow sand filtration operated intermittently, also known as filtration BioSand – chlorous disinfection through the use of calcium hypochlorite powder, solutions of sodium hypochlorite or sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (NaDCC)) – flocculation chemistry, using both commercial forms of iron or aluminum salts or by the crushed seeds of certain plants such as Moringa oleifera – a combination of flocculation and disinfection commercial powder mixtures – irradiation with ultraviolet light, both production by electric lamps as direct sunlight – membrane filtration using vacuum fiber ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis filters preceded by a pretreatment.